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Appealed to ICC 3. International law to base on crime (humanitarian crime)

3. International law to base on crime (humanitarian crime)

3-1. International Covenant on Citizenship and Political Rights

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

International Covenant on Citizenship and Political Rights

Article 2 (1) (3), Article 4 (1), Article 5 (2), Article 9 (1) (5), Article 13, Article 14 (6)

Article 15 (1), Article 16, Article 17, Article 26


International Covenant on Civic and Political Rights (Terms of Convention B)



International Covenant on Civic and Political Rights (B Terms)



   Signature / non-ratifying country

   Unsigned · Not signatories

Known / abbreviated terms

Drafting 1954

Signature adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (New York United Nations Headquarters) on 16th December 1966. Opened for signature on the 19th of the same month.

Effectiveness March 23, 1976

Depositary United Nations Secretary-General

Convention Number No. 7 of 1964

Languages Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish

Main content Security of international freedom

Article link http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm


International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

(International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ICCPR)

On December 16, 1966, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly,

It is a multilateral treaty on the international guarantee of human rights centered on freedom.

It was released for signature in New York on the same day 19th and occurred on March 23, 1976.

In Japanese it is abbreviated abbreviated as a free-rights agreement (jiyuu kayaki).

Concerning economic, social and cultural rights adopted at the same time

Sometimes referred to as the B Term for the International Covenant (Covenant on the Social Right, A Covenant)

Both conventions (and its optional protocol) are also called international human rights agreements.

This Agreement provides the Contracting Parties with equal rights as human beings, rights to life, freedom of religion,

Freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, right of suffrage, proper procedure and the right to a fair trial,

Respect and respect the individual's civic and political rights, we have an immediate obligation to secure.


Convention on Contracts, Term A




International human rights agreement



The International Covenant on Human Rights is based on the content of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,

It is the most basic and comprehensive in human rights treaties.

The Covenant on the Rights of the Covenant and the Convention on the Rights of the Rights were adopted at the 21st UN General Assembly in 1966,

It came into force in 1976.

Japan ratified in 1979.

In addition, the International Covenant on Human Rights,

Sometimes we call the Covenant of Civil Rights as International Human Rights B Terms.



International Covenant on Civic and Political Rights (B Terms)


Parties to this Code,

According to the principles declared in the United Nations Charter,

To recognize the inherent dignity of all members of human society and the right not to take away equality

Considering that it forms the basis of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

We acknowledge that these rights are derived from the inherent dignity of human beings,

According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, free humans are civil and political freedom

The ideal of enjoying freedom from fear and lack,

Everyone, along with its economic, social and cultural rights

In cases where conditions are created that can enjoy civic and political rights

I acknowledge that it will be achieved for the first time,

Honorable respect for human rights and freedom and obligation to promote compliance

Considering that the countries owed under the United Nations Charter,

Individuals are obligated to others and to the society to which they belong

And for the promotion and defense of rights granted under this Covenant

Recognize that you have the responsibility to strive and agree as follows.


Part One


First article

1 All the people have the right to self-determination. Based on this right, all people,

Freely decide its political position and its economic,

Freely pursue social and cultural development.


2 All the people,

As long as they do not violate obligations arising from international economic cooperation based on reciprocity principle and obligations under international law,

You can freely dispose of its natural wealth and resources for yourself.

In any case, the people will not be deprived of the means for their survival.


3 Parties to this Covenant (including those with responsibilities for administration in non-autonomous regions and trust-governed regions)

In accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, promote the realization of self-determination rights and respect the right to self-determination.


Part 2


Article 2


1 Each Contracting Party to the present Covenant shall, to all individuals within that territory and under its jurisdiction,

Race, skin color, sex, language, religion, political opinion and other opinions,

Without any discrimination due to national or social origin, property, birth or other status etc

I promise to respect and secure the rights that are permitted under this Code.


2 Each Contracting Party of the present Covenant shall, when legislative measures or other measures have not yet been taken,

To realize the right granted in this contract

In order to take necessary legislative measures and other measures,

I promise to take necessary actions according to the constitutional procedures of my country and the provisions of this regulation.


3 Each Contracting Party of this Covenant promises the following:


(a) A person who has been infringed on the rights or freedoms permitted under this Covenant,

Even when infringement is made by a person acting with public qualification,

Ensure that you receive effective remedial measures.

(B) the right of a person seeking a remedy is authorized judicial,

To ensure that it is determined by an administrative or legislative body or other competent authority specified by the national legislation and to develop the possibility of judicial remedy measures.

(c) Ensuring that remedies are enforced by authorized agencies when given remedies.


Article 3

 Parties to this Code,

On the enjoyment of all civic and political rights stipulated in this contract

We promise to ensure equal rights for men and women.


Article 4

1 In the event of a public emergency threatening the survival of the citizens, when the existence of the emergency is officially declared, the Contracting Party to the present Covenant shall, to the extent that the urgency of the situation is truly necessary, You can take measures that violate the obligation based on.

Provided, however, that such measures shall not conflict with other obligations undertaken by the Contracting Party under international law,


Also, it should not include discrimination due only to race, skin color, sex, language, religion or social origin.


2 The provision of paragraph 1 shall apply mutatis mutandis to Article 6, Article 7, Article 8 1 and 2,

Article 15, Article 15, Article 16, and Article 18 of the Act on Special Measures Concerning Conflict of Interest.

3 Parties to this agreement exercising the right to take measures to violate the obligation,

Immediately notify other Contracting Parties to this Agreement through the Secretary-General of the United Nations the provisions that violated and the reasons that resulted in violation.

Furthermore, on the day when the violation ends, notify through that Secretary-General.


Article 5

1 Any provision of this Agreement shall be governed by the State,

To have the right to engage in activities that aim to destroy the rights and freedoms permitted under this Code and to limit it beyond the limits set forth in this Regulation or for conducting such a purpose It can not be understood as meaningful.

2 With regard to basic human rights recognized or existing by laws, treaties, regulations or customs in any of the Contracting States of this Covenant,

Because of the fact that this agreement does not allow those rights or the scope of its acceptance is narrower,

Do not limit or violate those rights.


The third part


Article 6


1 All human beings have inherent rights to life.

This right is protected by law. No one is arbitrarily deprived of his life.

2 In countries that have not abolished capital punishment,

The death penalty has effect when the crime is done,

And can be subject only to the most serious crimes by the provisions of this Code and by the law which does not conflict with the provisions of the Convention on the prevention and punishment of collective killing crimes.

This punishment can only be enforced by a final judgment declared by an authorized court.

3 In the event that deprivation of life constitutes a collective murder crime, any assumption of this Article,

I understand that parties to this convention will not allow any obligation to be borne by any method regardless of the provisions of the Convention on the prevention and punishment of collective killing crimes.

4 No one who was sentenced to death,

Have the right to seek special pardon or commutation. Pardon for the death penalty,

Special pardon or commutation can be given in all cases.

5 The death penalty shall not be imposed on crimes committed by persons under 18 years of age,

Also, do not execute to girls pregnant.

6 No provision of this Article,

It shall not be invoked to delay or prevent the abolition of capital punishment by Parties to this Covenant.


Article 7

No one may be tortured or cruel,

Not subject to inhumane or degrading handling or punishment.

In particular, no one undergoes medical or scientific experiments without its free consent.


Article 8

1 No one can be put in a state of slavery.

All forms of slavery and slave trade are prohibited.

2 No one shall be placed in slavery.


(a) No one is required to subject to forced labor.

(b) The provision of paragraph (a) shall be deemed to prohibit the forced labor from being given due to the sentence of punishment by an authorized court in a country that can impose detention punishment with forced labor as penalty for crime It must not be.

(c) For the purposes of this application, "forced labor" does not include:

(i) to a person who is a work or a service, is not mentioned in the provision of (b), is detained by a court's legal order, or is exempted conditionally with its detention What is required

(ii) In countries where services of military nature and conscientious refusal of military service are permitted, conscientious military service refused persons are obliged to pay the national service required by law

(iii) Services required in the event of an emergency or disaster threatening the existence or welfare of society

(iv) work or service which is regarded as an ordinary duty as a citizen


Article 9

1 Everyone has the right to physical freedom and safety.

No one shall be arbitrarily arrested or detained.

No one will be deprived of its freedom unless it is based on the reasons and procedures established by law.


(2) A person arrested shall be informed of the reason at the time of arrest,

You can promptly inform us of the alleged facts to you.

(3) A person arrested or detained by a criminal charges,

Judge or exercise of jurisdiction shall be taken promptly in front of other official constitutions permitted by law and have the right to be judged or released within a reasonable period of time.

It is not a principle to detain a person appointed in a trial,

The release may be subject to the guarantee of appearance at all stages of trial and other judicial proceedings and the appearance for the execution of the judgment in the necessary cases.

4 A person who is deprived of liberty by arrest or detention,

The court has the right to proceed in the court so that the court can decide whether the detention is legitimate without delay and order the release if the detention is not legal.

5 Any person who has been illegally arrested or detained has the right to compensation.


Article 10

1 All who are deprived of liberty will be dealt with humanely and respecting the inherent dignity of human beings.


(a) The accused shall be separated from those who have been convicted, except in cases of exceptional circumstances, and shall be treated as a separate treatment corresponding to the position as a person not convicted receive.

(b) The defendant of the juvenile shall be separated from the adult and will be subject to trial as soon as possible.

3 The system of penal institution includes treatment that basically aims to rectify detainees and return to society. Juvenile offenders shall be separated from adults and handled according to their age and legal status.


Article 11

No one shall be detained for the sole reason that it can not fulfill its contractual obligations.


Article 12

1 Everyone who is legally within the territory of one of the States has the right to freedom of movement and freedom of residence within that territory.

2 Everyone is free to leave from any country (including their own country).

3 1 and 2 rights are not subject to any restrictions. Provided, however, that such restriction is required by law to protect national security, public order, public health or moral or other person's rights and freedoms, and other This is not the case if it is compatible with rights.

4 No one is arbitrarily deprived of the right to return to his country.


Article 13

Foreigners who are lawfully within the territory of the Contracting Party of this Covenant,

It can be expelled from this area only by decisions made under the law.

Except when there are unavoidable reasons for the safety of the country,

The foreign national shall be allowed to present a reason for opposing the expulsion of the person himself and that the case of his own will be judged by an authorized institution or a person nominated particularly by that institution,

For this reason, the agent or his representative will be admitted.


Article 14

1 Everyone shall be equal before the court.

Everyone, for the determination of the criminal sin or the decision on the conflict of civil rights and obligations,

Authoritative, independent and established by law,

Have the right to a fair public hearing by a fair court.

To the media and the public, it is necessary for the interests of the private life of the parties, on the grounds of morals in the democratic society, public order or national security, To the extent that the court finds it truly necessary under circumstances,

You can not disclose all or part of the trial.

However, judgments sentenced in criminal proceedings or other litigation,

Except when necessary for the benefit of a juvenile or when the procedure concerns disputes between married couple or guardianship of the child, it shall be made public.


2 Everyone who is charged with criminal charges has the right to be presumed innocent until convicted under the law.

3 Everyone has the right to receive at least the following guarantees sufficiently equally for the criminal sin decisions.

(a) to be able to tell the nature and reason of the crime promptly and in detail in its understanding language.

(b) to have sufficient time and benefit to prepare for defense and to contact counsel who appoints himself / herself.

(c) To have a trial without undue delay.

(d) To defend, through attendance by himself and receiving a trial, and through counsel who is appointed directly or by himself. If you do not have counsel, you should be told the right to have counsel. In cases where it is necessary for the interests of justice, when counselors do not have sufficient means of payment, they shall be appointed counsel without burdening their own costs.

(e) To interrogate or interrogate a witness who is disadvantageous to himself and seek witness attendance and interrogation for himself under the same conditions as witnesses against himself.

(f) To receive assistance for interpretation for free if you can not understand or speak the language used in the court.

(g) not to be forced to complain to himself or a guilty confession.

4 In the case of a juvenile, the procedure shall take into account that it is desirable to promote its age and its rehabilitation.

5 Everyone who has received a conviction has the right to be reconsidered by a higher court of its judgment and punishment under the law.

6 In cases where it is determined to be convicted by a final judgment,

Thereafter, if the guilty judgment is abandoned or pardoned on grounds that it was conclusively proven that a misjudgment was made due to a new fact or a newly discovered fact,

Those who have been subjected to punishment as a result of the guilty verdict receive compensation under the law.

Provided, however, that this shall not apply to cases where it is proved that all or part of the unknown facts not disclosed at the appropriate time is attributable to that person.

7 No one shall be tried again or punished again for acts that have already been definitively guilty or innocent in accordance with the laws and criminal proceedings of their respective countries.


Article 15

1 No one shall be convicted on behalf of an act or omission that did not constitute a crime by domestic law or international law at the time of its execution.

No one will be subjected to a heavier punishment than the punishment applied when the crime was done.

Those who commit a crime will benefit from the provision if the law provides provisions to impose mild punishment after the crime is committed.

2 No provision of this Article does not preclude trial or punishment for reasons of acts or omissions that were considered criminal at the time of execution, in accordance with the general principles of the law accepted by the international community.

Article 16

Everyone has the right to be recognized as a person in front of the law in all places.


Article 17

1 No one is arbitrarily or unlawfully interfered with its private life, family, residence or communication or is not illegally attacked by honor and trust.

2 Everyone has the right to protection of the law against interference or attack of one.


Article 18

1 Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

This right includes freedoms to accept or have religious beliefs or beliefs of their choice,

Includes freedom to express its religion or belief by worship, ceremonies, events and guidance, either alone or jointly with others and publicly or privately.

2 No one shall be subject to compulsion that may infringe freedom to accept or have religious beliefs or beliefs of their own choosing.

3 For freedom to express religion or belief it is necessary to protect public safety, public order, public health or morality or other person's basic rights and freedoms, You can impose only.

4 Parties to this Covenant promise to respect that parents and optionally legal guardians have the freedom to ensure the religious and moral education of children according to their own beliefs.


Article 19

1 Everyone has the right to have an opinion without being interfered.

2 Everyone has the right to freedom of expression.

This right may be orally, handwritten or printed, in the form of art or by other methods of choice by themselves,

Including freedom to seek, receive and convey all kinds of information and ideas, regardless of borders.

3 Exercising the right of 2 involves special obligations and responsibilities.

Therefore, certain restrictions can be imposed on the exercise of this right.

Provided, however, that limitation shall be limited by what is required by the law and for the following purposes.

(a) Respect the rights or credit of others

(b) Protection of national security, public order or public health or morality


Article 20

1 Any promotion for war is prohibited by law.

2 The advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred which is instigating discrimination, hostility or violence is prohibited by law.


Article 21

Peaceful gathering rights are accepted.

Regarding the exercise of this right, it is a restriction stipulated by law, and the safety of the country, public safety,

We can not impose any restrictions other than what is necessary in the democratic society for the protection of public order, the protection of public health or morals or the protection of others' rights and freedom.


Article 22

1 Everyone has the right to freedom of association.

This right includes the right to form and join labor unions to protect their interests.

2 With regard to the exercise of the right of 1, it is a limit prescribed by law,

We can not impose any restrictions other than what is necessary in the democratic society for the protection of public order, the protection of public health or morality or the protection of the rights and freedom of others.

The provision of this Article, with the exercise of 1 right,

It does not preclude imposing legal restrictions on members of the military and police.

3 No provision of this Article,

Parties to the International Labor Organization Convention of 1948, concerning the freedom of association and the protection of the right to organize,

It does not allow you to take legislative measures to impede the warranty provided for in the Convention or to apply the law in such a way as to obstruct the warranty provided for in the Convention.


Article 23

1 Family is a natural and fundamental unit of society and has the right to protection by society and country.

2 The right to marry and to form a family is allowed for men and women of the age to be married.

3 Marriage does not come into existence without the free and complete agreement of both parties.

4 Parties to this Covenant shall take appropriate measures to ensure equality of rights and responsibilities of married spouses during marriage and dissolution of marriage. In the case of resolution, measures are taken for necessary protection against the child.


Article 24

1 Every child has race, color of skin, sex, language, religion, national or social origin,

Without any discrimination due to property or birth, it is a necessary protection measure for a position as a minor and has the right to take measures by family, society and the state.

2 All children are registered immediately after birth and have a name.

3 All children have the right to obtain nationality.


Article 25

Every citizen has the right and the opportunity to do the following without any discrimination prescribed in Article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions.

(a) Participate in politics, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

(b) Conducted by secret ballot based on ordinary and equal voting rights,

To vote and be elected in an authentic regular election that guarantees free expression of the voter's intention.

(c) to engage in the public service of your country under general equality conditions.


Article 26

Everyone is equal before the law,

It is entitled to protection of equality by law without any discrimination.

For this reason, the law prohibits all discrimination and for whatever reasons such as race, color of the skin, sex, language, religion, political opinion or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status We will ensure equal and effective protection to all people against discrimination by.


Article 27

In countries where ethnic, religious or linguistic ethnic minorities exist, those who belong to the ethnic minority,

We enjoyed our culture with other members of the group,

You can not deny the right to believe and practice your religion or use your language.


Part 4

Article 28

(1) The Commission on Human Rights (hereinafter referred to as the "Committee") shall be established.

The committee shall perform the duties specified in this section as being composed of 18 members.


(2) The Committee shall have noble personality,

It consists of citizens of parties to this convention recognized for their abilities in the field of human rights.

In this case, consideration is given to the fact that participation by persons with legal experience is beneficial.

(3) The committee members shall be elected and perform their duties with the qualifications of individuals.


Article 29

(1) The committee members shall have the qualifications prescribed in the preceding Article,

It is elected by secret ballot from the list of persons nominated for election by the Contracting Party of this Covenant.

2 Each Contracting State of this Covenant may designate one or two persons.

The person nominated shall be a citizen of the nominating country.

3 Everyone has the right to be re-nominated.


Article 30

(1) The first election of a committee member shall be made within six months after the effective date of this Covenant.

(2) In addition to the case of elections to supplement empty seats (referring to empty seats declared pursuant to the provisions of Article 33) pursuant to the provisions of Article 34, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify the members of the committee Requests to the Contracting Parties to this agreement at least four months at the latest of the election day in writing to submit the name of the person nominated for the committee members within three months.

3 The Secretary-General of the United Nations creates a roster in alphabetical order of nominees referred to in paragraph 2 (this shall be a name list showing the names of the Parties that nominated these persons), and will keep the roster at the latest at each of the election days at the latest Send to the Parties to this agreement before.

4 The election of the committee members shall be held at the meeting of the contracting party of this Covenant convened by the United Nations Secretary General to the United Nations Headquarters. This meeting shall be a quorum with two thirds of the Parties to this Covenant. At this meeting, it shall be the committee elected to the committee with the most number of votes cast by the representatives of the Parties present and voting, and nominated by a majority vote.


Article 31

(1) A committee can not include two or more people in one country.

2 In the election of the committee, take into consideration that the allocation of the committee is geographically equitable and that different civilization forms and major legal systems are represented.


Article 32

1 The members of the committee shall be elected for a term of four years. The committee is entitled to be re-elected if it is re-nominated. Provided, however, that the term of office of nine of the committee members elected in the initial election shall expire in two years and these nine committee members shall, pursuant to the provisions of Article 30 4 immediately after the first election At the meeting to be elected by the chairman by lottery.

(2) Elections at the expiration of the term shall be in accordance with the provisions of the preceding articles of this section.


Article 33

1 If another member agrees that the members of the committee are unable to fulfill their duties for reasons other than temporary absence, the chairperson of the committee will be appointed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations The Secretary-General shall declare that the position of said committee has become vacant.

(2) In the event that a committee member dies or resigns, the chairperson shall immediately notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations that effect and the secretary-general shall notify the Secretary-General from the date of death or resignation the position of such committee I declare that I was vacant.


Article 34

(1) In the case where a vacancy is declared pursuant to the provisions of the preceding Article, if the term of office of a member to be replaced within six months from the date of such declaration does not expire, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform each Contracting Party of the Covenant Notice. Each Contracting Party may submit the name of the person nominated pursuant to the provision of Article 29 within two months to supplement the vacancy.

2 The Secretary-General of the United Nations prepares a roster in alphabetical order of nominated persons referred to in paragraph 1 and sends it to the Contracting States of this Covenant. Elections for supplementing vacancies shall be made in accordance with relevant provisions of this section.

3 The members of the committee elected to supplement vacancies declared pursuant to the provisions of the preceding Article shall remain in office for the remainder of the committee members who are vacant in the committee pursuant to the provision of the same Article.


Article 35

The members of the committee receive remuneration from the resources of the United Nations, with the approval of the General Assembly, subject to the conditions determined by the General Assembly of the United Nations considering the importance of the committee's duties.


Article 36

The Secretary-General of the United Nations provides staff and benefits necessary for the Committee to effectively carry out the duties stipulated in this Code.


Article 37

1 The Secretary - General of the United Nations convenes the first meeting of the Committee to the United Nations Headquarters.

2. The Committee shall meet at the time specified in the Rules of Procedure after the first meeting.

3 Committees usually meet at the United Nations Headquarters or the United Nations Office in Geneva.


Article 38

Prior to the commencement of duties, all members of the committee conduct a solemn oath on the public committee to fulfill their duties fairly and conscientiously.


Article 39

(1) The Committee shall elect officers for a term of two years. Officers can be re-elected.

(2) The Committee shall establish procedural rules. In particular, the following rules shall be established for this procedure rule.

(a) To be quorum with twelve members.

(b) The decision of the committee shall be made by a majority of the votes cast by the committee members.


Article 40

1 Parties to this Covenant shall: (a) within one year from the time this Covenant becomes effective for that Contracting Party, (b) thereafter, upon the request of the Committee, the realization of the rights granted in this Code We will promise to submit reports on the measures taken for and the progress made on the enjoyment of these rights.

2 All reports shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, which will send these reports to the Committee for consideration. In the report, if factors and obstacles affecting the implementation of this regulation exist, describe these factors and obstacles.

3 The Secretary-General of the United Nations may, after consultation with the Committee, send a copy of the part concerning matters within the authority of any of the specialized agencies included in the report to the specialized agency.

4 The Committee considers the reports submitted by the Contracting States of this Covenant. The Committee shall send to the Contracting Party a report of the Committee and a general character that it deems appropriate and shall transmit the general character together with a copy of the report received from the Contracting Party of this Covenant You can send the opinions that you have to the Economic and Social Council.

(5) A Contracting Party to the present Covenant may submit to the Committee a view on opinions having general characteristics sent pursuant to the provision of (4).


Article 41

1 Parties to this Covenant will admit that the Committee has the authority to accept and review the report from any Contracting Party that alleges that obligations under this Covenant are not being fulfilled by other Contracting Parties You may declare it at any time pursuant to the provisions of this Article. A notice under this Article may be accepted and considered only if it is a report by a Contracting Party that has made a declaration that allows the Commission's authority concerning its country. The committee shall not accept reports on parties not declaring. Report received under the provisions of this Article shall be handled according to the following procedure.

(a) If a Contracting Party to the present Covenant finds that other Contracting Party is not enforcing this Covenant, it may evoke the attention of the other Contracting Party concerning that matter by written notice. The country receiving the notice will provide documents or other documents explaining the matter to the country that sent the notification within three months after receipt of the notice. These documents shall be mentioned in relation to the situation and to the extent possible and appropriate to the domestic procedures and remedies that are currently taken or can be taken in the future.

(b) If the case is not adjusted to satisfy both parties concerned within six months after receipt of the first notice, either party shall notify the committee and the other contracting party And have the right to refer the matter to the committee by doing so.

(c) The committee is referred to in accordance with generally accepted principles of international law only after confirming that all domestic remedies available for the case referred to have been taken and exhausted Handle incidents. Provided, however, that this shall not apply if the implementation of remedial measures is unreasonably delayed.

(d) The Committee shall hold a closed meeting when considering reporting pursuant to the provisions of this Article.

(e) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (c), the Committee shall make a relief to the Parties concerned in order to settle the case friendly, on the basis of the respect for human rights and fundamental freedence accepted in this Code .

(f) The Committee may request the Parties concerned referred to in paragraph (b) to provide any relevant information for any of the cases referred to.

(g) The Parties concerned referred to in paragraph (b) shall have the right to attend the delegation while the committee is considering the case and also have the right to submit opinions orally or in writing.

(h) The committee shall submit a report within twelve months after the day on which the notice of (b) is received. For each case, the report shall be sent to the relevant Contracting Party.

(i) If the solution is reached according to the provisions of (e), the Committee shall report briefly stated facts and resolutions that have been reached.

(ii) If the resolution is not reached as prescribed in paragraph (e), the Committee shall report a brief description of the facts and shall record the verbal opinion of the Party concerned and written opinion .

2. The provision of this Article shall become effective when the ten Contracting States of this Covenant have made a declaration under 1 provision. The declaration shall be deposited by the Contracting Party with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, and the Secretary-General shall send a copy thereof to the other Contracting Parties. The declaration may be withdrawn at any time by notice to the Secretary-General. Withdrawal does not preclude consideration of any case in the notification already sent pursuant to the provisions of this Article. New notifications by Parties withdrawing the declaration shall not be accepted unless the Contracting Party makes a new declaration after the Secretary-General has received a notice of withdrawal of the declaration.



Article 42


(a) If the case referred to by the Committee pursuant to the provisions of the preceding Article can not be resolved so as to be satisfied by the Contracting Party, the Committee shall, with the prior consent of the Parties concerned, "Mediation Committee") can be established. The Conciliation Committee shall make relaxation with respect to the Parties concerned in order to solve the case friendlyly on the basis of respect of this Covenant.

(b) The mediation committee shall consist of the five persons accepted by the Contracting Party concerned. With regard to the composition of the mediation committee, if the concerned parties do not reach an agreement within three months, the members of the mediation committee which can not obtain consensus shall be due to the secret ballot of the committee, by a majority of two thirds or more By vote, elect from committee members.

(2) The members of the mediation committee shall perform their duties with the qualifications of individuals. The committee member shall not be a citizen of the Contracting State concerned, a country which is not a Contracting State of this Covenant or a State party not declaring under the provisions of the preceding Article.

3 The arbitration committee elects the chairperson and adopts the procedure rules.

4 The meeting of the mediation committee is normally held at the United Nations Headquarters or the United Nations Office in Geneva. However, this meeting may be held in a suitable place where the mediation committee decides upon consultation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the relevant Contracting Parties.

(5) The Secretariat provided pursuant to the provision of Article 36 shall also provide services for the Conciliation Committee established pursuant to the provisions of this Article.

6 The information received and consolidated by the Committee shall be used by the Conciliation Committee and the Conciliation Committee may request the Parties concerned to provide any other relevant information .

7 The Conciliation Committee shall notify the committee chairman of the committee within twelve months after notifying the case fully and in any case after picking up the case for consideration hand in.

(a) If it is not possible to conclude examination of the case within twelve months, the mediation committee will report briefly describing the status of consideration of the case.

(b) In the event of a friendly resolution of the case on the basis of respect for human rights accepted under this Code, the Conciliation Committee will report briefly stated facts and resolutions they have reached.

(c) If it does not reach the solution set out in (b), the report of the mediation committee shall include the findings of all facts relating to the dispute problem between the relevant parties and the friendly solution of the case As well as an oral opinion of the Parties concerned and a written opinion are attached.

(d) Where a report of the Conciliation Committee is to be submitted under paragraph (c), the Contracting Party concerned shall notify the committee chairman of the mediation committee within three months after receipt of the report Whether to accept the contents of the report is notified.

8 The provisions of this Article shall not affect the duties of the Committee pursuant to the provisions of the preceding Article.

9 The Parties concerned shall share all expenses for the members of the mediation committee equally, in accordance with the estimate prepared by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

10 The Secretary-General of the United Nations has the authority to pay the expenses of members of the Conciliation Committee prior to the allocation of the expenses of the Parties concerned under the provisions of 9, if necessary.


Article 43

Members of the Committee and members of the Conciliation Committee established pursuant to the provisions of the preceding Article shall have benefits, privileges and expertise of experts who perform duties for the United Nations as provided for in the relevant provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the United Nations and exemptions Enjoy exemptions.


Article 44

The provisions concerning the implementation of this Covenant shall be governed by the basic documents of the United Nations and specialized agencies and by treaties prepared in the United Nations and specialized agencies or by interfering with the procedures prescribed in the field of human rights under these basic documents and treaties And shall not apply to any other party that would hinder the use of other procedures by parties to this Covenant for the resolution of disputes due to general or special international arrangements having effect between the Contracting Parties to this Covenant Absent.


Article 45

The committee submits an annual report on its activities to the United Nations General Assembly through the Economic and Social Council.


Part 5


Article 46

Any provision of this Agreement shall prevent the application of the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, which defines the duties of the organizations of the United Nations and specialized agencies, and the provisions of the basic documents of specialized agencies, for the matters stipulated in this Regulation Do not do it.


Article 47

No provision of this agreement,

It should not be interpreted as impairing the inherent right of all people to enjoy and use their natural wealth and resources adequately and freely.



The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 


2条(1)(3)、第4条(1)、第5条(2)、第9(1) (5)、第13条、第14条(6)、



市民的及び政治的権利に関する国際規約(自由権規約 B規約)








通称・略称 自由権規約

起草 1954

署名 19661216日、国際連合総会(ニューヨーク国際連合本部)において採択。同月19日署名のため開放。

効力発生 1976323

寄託者 国際連合事務総長

条約番号 昭和54年条約第7

言語 中国語、英語、フランス語、ロシア語、スペイン語

主な内容 国際的な自由権の保障

条文リンク http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm



(International Covenant on Civil and Political RightsICCPR)は、


















































1 すべての人民は、自決の権利を有する。この権利に基づき、すべての人民は、




2 すべての人民は、





3 この規約の締約国(非自治地域及び信託統治地域の施政の責任を有する国を含む。)は、







1 この規約の各締約国は、その領域内にあり、かつ、その管轄の下にあるすべての個人に対し、





2 この規約の各締約国は、立法措置その他の措置がまだとられていない場合には、





3 この規約の各締約国は、次のことを約束する。


 (a) この規約において認められる権利又は自由を侵害された者が、



 (b) 救済措置を求める者の権利が権限のある司法上、


  1. 救済措置が与えられる場合に権限のある機関によって執行されることを確保すること。








1 国民の生存を脅かす公の緊急事態の場合においてその緊急事態の存在が公式に宣言されているときは、この規約の締約国は、事態の緊急性が真に必要とする限度において、この規約に基づく義務に違反する措置をとることができる。



2 一の規定は、第六条、第七条、第八条1及び2


3 義務に違反する措置をとる権利を行使するこの規約の締約国は、





1 この規約のいかなる規定も、国、集団又は個人が、


2 この規約のいずれかの締約国において法律、条約、規則又は慣習によって認められ又は存する基本的人権については、







1 すべての人間は、生命に対する固有の権利を有する。


2 死刑を廃止していない国においては、




3 生命の剥奪が集団殺害犯罪を構成する場合には、この条のいかなる想定も、


4 死刑を言い渡されたいかなる者も、



5 死刑は、十八歳未満の者が行った犯罪について科してはならず、


6 この条のいかなる規定も、









1 何人も、奴隷の状態に置かれない。


2 何人も、隷属状態に置かれない。


(a) 何人も、強制労働に服することを要求されない。

(b) (a)の規定は、犯罪に対する刑罰として強制労働を伴う拘禁刑を科することができる国において、権限のある裁判所による刑罰の言渡しにより強制労働をさせることを禁止するものと解してはならない。

(c) この三の適用上、「強制労働」には、次のものを含まない。

(i) 作業又は役務であって、(b)の規定において言及されておらず、かつ、裁判所の合法的な命令によって抑留されている者又はその抑留を条件付きで免除されている者に通常要求されるもの

(ii) 軍事的性質の役務及び、良心的兵役拒否が認められている国においては、良心的兵役拒否者が法律によって要求される国民的役務

(iii) 社会の存立又は福祉を脅かす緊急事態又は災害の場合に要求される役務

(iv) 市民としての通常の義務とされる作業又は役務



1 すべての者は、身体の自由及び安全についての権利を有する。



2 逮捕される者は、逮捕の時にその理由を告げられるものとし、


3 刑事上の罪に問われて逮捕され又は抑留された者は、




4 逮捕又は抑留によって自由を奪われた者は、


5 違法に逮捕され又は抑留された者は、賠償を受ける権利を有する。



1 自由を奪われたすべての者は、人道的にかつ人間の固有の尊厳を尊重して、取り扱われる。


(a) 被告人は、例外的な事情がある場合を除くほか有罪の判決を受けた者とは分離されるものとし、有罪の判決を受けていない者としての地位に相応する別個の取扱いを受ける。

(b) 少年の被告人は、成人とは分離されるものとし、できる限り速やかに裁判に付される。

3 行刑の制度は、被拘禁者の矯正及び社会復帰を基本的な目的とする処遇を含む。少年の犯罪者は、成人とは分離されるものとし、その年齢及び法的地位に相応する取扱いを受ける。






1 合法的にいずれかの国の領域内にいるすべての者は、当該領域内において、移動の自由及び居住の自由についての権利を有する。

2 すべての者は、いずれの国(自国を含む。)からも自由に離れることができる。

3 1及び2の権利は、いかなる制限も受けない。ただし、その制限が、法律で定められ、国の安全、公の秩序、公衆の健康若しくは道徳又は他の者の権利及び自由を保護するために必要であり、かつ、この規約において認められる他の権利と両立するものである場合は、この限りでない。

4 何人も、自国に戻る権利を恣意的に奪われない。










1 すべての者は、裁判所の前に平等とする。









2 刑事上の罪に問われているすべての者は、法律に基づいて有罪とされるまでは、無罪と推定される権利を有する。

3 すべての者は、その刑事上の罪の決定について、十分平等に、少なくとも次の保障を受ける権利を有する。

(a) その理解する言語で速やかにかつ詳細にその罪の性質及び理由を告げられること。

(b) 防御の準備のために十分な時間及び便益を与えられ並びに自ら選任する弁護人と連絡すること。

(c) 不当に遅延することなく裁判を受けること。

(d) 自ら出席して裁判を受け及び、直接に又は自ら選任する弁護人を通じて、防御すること。弁護人がいない場合には、弁護人を持つ権利を告げられること。司法の利益のために必要な場合には、十分な支払手段を有しないときは自らその費用を負担することなく、弁護人を付されること。

(e) 自己に不利な証人を尋問し又はこれに対し尋問させること並びに自己に不利な証人と同じ条件で自己のための証人の出席及びこれに対する尋問を求めること。

(f) 裁判所において使用される言語を理解すること又は話すことができない場合には、無料で通訳の援助を受けること。

(g) 自己に不利益な供述又は有罪の自白を強要されないこと。

4 少年の場合には、手続は、その年齢及びその更生の促進が望ましいことを考慮したものとする。

5 有罪の判決を受けたすべての者は、法律に基づきその判決及び刑罰を上級の裁判所によって再審理される権利を有する。

6 確定判決によって有罪と決定された場合において、




7 何人も、それぞれの国の法律及び刑事手続に従って既に確定的に有罪又は無罪の判決を受けた行為について再び裁判され又は処罰されることはない。



1 何人も、実行の時に国内法又は国際法により犯罪を構成しなかった作為又は不作為を理由として有罪とされることはない。



2 この条のいかなる規定も、国際社会の認める法の一般原則により実行の時に犯罪とされていた作為又は不作為を理由として裁判しかつ処罰することを妨げるものでない。






1 何人も、その私生活、家族、住居若しくは通信に対して恣意的に若しくは不法に干渉され又は名誉及び信用を不法に攻撃されない。

2 すべての者は、1の干渉又は攻撃に対する法律の保護を受ける権利を有する。



1 すべての者は、思想、良心及び宗教の自由についての権利を有する。



2 何人も、自ら選択する宗教又は信念を受け入れ又は有する自由を侵害するおそれのある強制を受けない。

3 宗教又は信念を表明する自由については、法律で定める制限であって公共の安全、公の秩序、公衆の健康若しくは道徳又は他の者の基本的な権利及び自由を保護するために必要なもののみを課することができる。

4 この規約の締約国は父母及び場合により法定保護者が、自己の信念に従って児童の宗教的及び道徳的教育を確保する自由を有することを尊重することを約束する。



1 すべての者は、干渉されることなく意見を持つ権利を有する。

2 すべての者は、表現の自由についての権利を有する。



3 2の権利の行使には、特別の義務及び責任を伴う。



(a) 他の者の権利又は信用の尊重

(b) 国の安全、公の秩序又は公衆の健康若しくは道徳の保護



1 戦争のためのいかなる宣伝も、法律で禁止する。

2 差別、敵意又は暴力の扇動となる国民的、人種的又は宗教的憎悪の唱道は、法律で禁止する。








1 すべての者は、結社の自由についての権利を有する。


2 1の権利の行使については、法律で定める制限であって国の安全若しくは公共の安全、




3 この条のいかなる規定も、





1 家族は、社会の自然かつ基礎的な単位であり、社会及び国による保護を受ける権利を有する。

2 婚姻をすることができる年齢の男女が婚姻をしかつ家族を形成する権利は、認められる。

3 婚姻は、両当事者の自由かつ完全な合意なしには成立しない。

4 この規約の締約国は、婚姻中及び婚姻の解消の際に、婚姻に係る配偶者の権利及び責任の平等を確保するため、適当な措置をとる。その解消の場合には、児童に対する必要な保護のため、措置がとられる。



1 すべての児童は、人種、皮膚の色、性、言語、宗教、国民的若しくは社会的出身、


2 すべての児童は、出生の後直ちに登録され、かつ、氏名を有する。

3 すべての児童は、国籍を取得する権利を有する。




(a) 直接に、又は自由に選んだ代表者を通じて、政治に参与すること。

(b) 普通かつ平等の選挙権に基づき秘密投票により行われ、


(c) 一般的な平等条件の下で自国の公務に携わること。














1 人権委員会(以下「委員会」という。)を設置する。



2 委員会は、高潔な人格を有し、かつ、



3 委員会の委員は、個人の資格で、選挙され及び職務を遂行する。



1 委員会の委員は、前条に定める資格を有し、かつ、


2 この規約の各締約国は、一人又は二人を指名することができる。


3 いずれの者も、再指名される資格を有する。



1 委員会の委員の最初の選挙は、この規約の効力発生の日の後六箇月以内に行う。

2 第三十四条の規定に従って空席(第三十三条の規定により宣言された空席をいう。)を補充するための選挙の場合を除くほか、国際連合事務総長は、委員会の委員の選挙の日の遅くとも四箇月前までに、この規約の締約国に対し、委員会の委員に指名された者の氏名を三箇月以内に提出するよう書面で要請する。

3 国際連合事務総長は、2にいう指名された者のアルファベット順による名簿(これらの者を指名した締約国名を表示した名簿とする。)を作成し、名簿を各選挙の日の遅くとも一箇月前までにこの規約の締約国に送付する。

4 委員会の委員の選挙は、国際連合事務総長により国際連合本部に招集されるこの規約の締約国の会合において行う。この会合は、この規約の締約国の三分の二をもって定足数とする。この会合においては、出席しかつ投票する締約国の代表によって投じられた票の最多数で、かつ、過半数の票を得た指名された者をもって委員会に選出された委員とする。



1 委員会は、1の国の国民を二人以上含むことができない。

2 委員会の選挙に当たっては、委員の配分が地理的に衡平に行われること並びに異なる文明形態及び主要な法体系が代表されることを考慮に入れる。



1 委員会の委員は、四年の任期で選出される。委員は、再指名された場合には、再選される資格を有する。ただし、最初の選挙において選出された委員のうち九人の委員の任期は、二年で終了するものとし、これらの九人の委員は、最初の選挙の後直ちに、第三十条4に規定する会合において議長によりくじ引で選ばれる。

2 任期満了の際の選挙は、この部の前諸条の規定に従って行う。



1 委員会の委員が一時的な不在以外の理由のためその職務を遂行することができなくなったことを他の委員が一致して認める場合には、委員会の委員長は国際連合事務総長にその旨を通知するものとし、同事務総長は、当該委員の職が空席となったことを宣言する。

2 委員会の委員が死亡し又は辞任した場合には、委員長は、直ちに国際連合事務総長にその旨を通知するものとし、同事務総長は、死亡し又は辞任した日から当該委員の職が空席となったことを宣言する。



1 前条の規定により空席が宣言された場合において、当該宣言の時から六箇月以内に交代される委員の任期が満了しないときは、国際連合事務総長は、この規約の各締約国にその旨を通知する。各締約国は、空席を補充するため、二箇月以内に第二十九条の規定により指名された者の氏名を提出することができる。

2 国際連合事務総長は、1にいう指名された者のアルファベット順による名簿を作成し、この規約の締約国に送付する。空席を補充するための選挙は、この部の関連規定に従って行う。

3 前条の規定により宣言された空席を補充するために選出された委員会の委員は、同条の規定により委員会における職が空席となった委員の残余の期間在任する。









1 国際連合事務総長は、委員会の最初の会合を国際連合本部に招集する。

2 委員会は、最初の会合の後は、手続規則に定める時期に会合する。

3 委員会は、通常、国際連合本部又はジュネーブにある国際連合事務所において会合する。






1 委員会は、役員を二年の任期で選出する。役員は、再選されることができる。

2 委員会は、手続規則を定める。この手続規則には、特に次のことを定める。

(a) 十二人の委員をもって定足数とすること。

(b) 委員会の決定は、出席する委員が投ずる票の過半数によって行うこと。



1 この規約の締約国は、(a)当該締約国についてこの規約が効力を生ずる時から一年以内に、(b)その後は委員会が要請するときに、この規約において認められる権利の実現のためにとった措置及びこれらの権利の享受についてもたらされた進歩に関する報告を提出することを約束する。

2 すべての報告は、国際連合事務総長に提出するものとし、同事務総長は、検討のため、これらの報告を委員会に送付する。報告には、この規約の実施に影響を及ぼす要因及び障害が存在する場合には、これらの要因及び障害を記載する。

3 国際連合事務総長は、委員会との協議の後、報告に含まれるいずれかの専門機関の権限の範囲内にある事項に関する部分の写しを当該専門機関に送付することができる。

4 委員会は、この規約の締約国の提出する報告を検討する。委員会は、委員会の報告及び適当と認める一般的な性格を有する意見を締約国に送付しなければならず、また、この規約の締約国から受領した報告の写しとともに当該一般的な性格を有する意見を経済社会理事会に送付することができる。

5 この規約の締約国は、四の規定により送付される一般的な性格を有する意見に関する見解を委員会に提示することができる。



1 この規約の締約国は、この規約に基づく義務が他の締約国によって履行されていない旨を主張するいずれかの締約国からの通報を委員会が受理しかつ検討する権限を有することを認めることを、この条の規定に基づいていつでも宣言することができる。この条の規定に基づく通報は、委員会の当該権限を自国について認める宣言を行った締約国による通報である場合に限り、受理しかつ検討することができる。委員会は、宣言を行っていない締約国についての通報を受理してはならない。この条の規定により受理される通報は、次の手続に従って取り扱う。

(a) この規約の締約国は、他の締約国がこの規約を実施していないと認める場合には、書面による通知により、その事態につき当該他の締約国の注意を喚起することができる。通知を受領する国は、通知の受領の後三箇月以内に、当該事態について説明する文書その他の文書を、通知を送付した国に提供する。これらの文書は、当該事態について既にとられ、現在とっており又は将来とることができる国内的な手続及び救済措置に、可能かつ適当な範囲において、言及しなければならない。

(b) 最初の通知の受領の後六箇月以内に当該事案が関係締約国の双方の満足するように調整されない場合には、いずれの一方の締約国も、委員会及び他方の締約国に通告することにより当該事案を委員会に付託する権利を有する。

(c) 委員会は、付託された事案について利用し得るすべての国内的な救済措置がとられかつ尽くされたことを確認した後に限り、一般的に認められた国際法の原則に従って、付託された事案を取り扱う。ただし、救済措置の実施が不当に遅延する場合は、この限りでない。

(d) 委員会は、この条の規定により通報を検討する場合には、非公開の会合を開催する。

(e) (c)の規定に従うことを条件として、委員会は、この規約において認められる人権及び基本的自由の尊重を基礎として事案を友好的に解決するため、関係締約国に対してあっ旋を行う。

(f) 委員会は、付託されたいずれの事案についても、(b)にいう関係締約国に対し、あらゆる関連情報を提供するよう要請することができる。

(g) (b)にいう関係締約国は、委員会において事案が検討されている間において代表を出席させる権利を有するものとし、また、口頭又は書面により意見を提出する権利を有する。

(h) 委員会は、(b)の通告を受領した日の後十二箇月以内に、報告を提出する。報告は、各事案ごとに、関係締約国に送付する。

(i) (e)の規定により解決に到達した場合には、委員会は、事実及び到達した解決について簡潔に記述したものを報告する。

(ii) (e)の規定により解決に到達しない場合には、委員会は、事実について簡潔に記述したものを報告するものとし、当該報告に関係締約国の口頭による意見の記録及び書面による意見を添付する。

2 この条の規定は、この規約の十の締約国が1の規定に基づく宣言を行った時に効力を生ずる。宣言は、締約国が国際連合事務総長に寄託するものとし、同事務総長は、その写しを他の締約国に送付する。宣言は、同事務総長に対する通告によりいつでも撤回することができる。撤回は、この条の規定に従って既に送付された通報におけるいかなる事案の検討をも妨げるものではない。宣言を撤回した締約国による新たな通報は、同事務総長がその宣言の撤回の通告を受領した後は、当該締約国が新たな宣言を行わない限り、受理しない。




(a) 前条の規定により委員会に付託された事案が関係締約国の満足するように解決されない場合には、委員会は、関係締約国の事前の同意を得て、特別調停委員会(以下「調停委員会」という。)を設置することができる。調停委員会は、この規約の尊重を基礎として当該事案を友好的に解決するため、関係締約国に対してあっ旋を行う。

(b) 調停委員会は、関係締約国が容認する五人の者で構成する。調停委員会の構成について三箇月以内に関係締約国が合意に達しない場合には、合意が得られない調停委員会の委員については、委員会の秘密投票により、三分の二以上の多数による議決で、委員会の委員の中から選出する。

2 調停委員会の委員は、個人の資格で、職務を遂行する。委員は、関係締約国、この規約の締約国でない国又は前条の規定に基づく宣言を行っていない締約国の国民であってはならない。

3 調停委員会は、委員長を選出し及び手続規則を採択する。

4 調停委員会の会合は、通常、国際連合本部又はジュネーブにある国際連合事務所において開催する。もっとも、この会合は、調停委員会が国際連合事務総長及び関係締約国との協議の上決定する他の適当な場所において開催することができる。

5 第三十六条の規定により提供される事務局は、また、この条の規定に基づいて設置される調停委員会のために役務を提供する。

6 委員会が受領しかつ取りまとめる情報は、調停委員会の利用に供しなければならず、また、調停委員会は、関係締約国に対し、他のあらゆる関連情報を提供するよう要請することができる。

7 調停委員会は、事案を十分に検討した後に、かつ、検討のため事案を取り上げた後いかなる場合にも十二箇月以内に、関係締約国に通知するため、委員会の委員長に報告を提出する。

(a) 十二箇月以内に事案の検討を終了することができない場合には、調停委員会は、事案の検討状況について簡潔に記述したものを報告する。

(b) この規約において認められる人権の尊重を基礎として事案の友好的な解決に到達した場合には、調停委員会は、事実及び到達した解決について簡潔に記述したものを報告する。

(c) (b)に規定する解決に到達しない場合には、調停委員会の報告には、関係締約国間の係争問題に係るすべての事実関係についての調査結果及び当該事案の友好的な解決の可能性に関する意見を記載するとともに関係締約国の口頭による意見の記録及び書面による意見を添付する。

(d) (c)の規定により調停委員会の報告が提出される場合には、関係締約国は、その報告の受領の後三箇月以内に、委員会の委員長に対し、調停委員会の報告の内容を受諾するかどうかを通告する。

8 この条の規定は、前条の規定に基づく委員会の任務に影響を及ぼすものではない。

9 関係締約国は、国際連合事務総長が作成する見積りに従って、調停委員会の委員に係るすべての経費を平等に分担する。

10 国際連合事務総長は、必要なときは、9の規定による関係締約国の経費の分担に先立って調停委員会の委員の経費を支払う権限を有する。